The Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs was established on 9 September 2007 by Royal Decree No. (90/2007) after the environmental march went through several organizational and structural stages. It starts with the establishment of the Office of the Advisor for Conservation of the Environment in 1974 and its most important functions was the establishment and development of the project of reintroduction of the Arabian Oryx into their natural habitats.
The Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs as one of the government authorities is responsible for formulating plans and programs for protection of the environment and conservation of its natural resources through application of its policy to ensure safety of the environment, combat pollution and maintain the various ecosystems within the framework of the basic objectives of the sustainable development, as well as protection of wildlife, conservation of nature, preservation and sustainable use of resources. In addition to monitoring and assessment of climate change in coordination with the competent authorities to avoid many of the potential impacts of climate change on the natural, economic and social systems so as to be prepared to manage the risks of climate change by taking necessary actions, preparation of national strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to these effects so as to confront the potential risks in this regard.
The Ministry also contributes to the development of scientific research prospects in the environmental and climate fields, exchange of expertise, collection and use of scientific data. It is responsible for raising awareness and implants the concepts of dealing with the environment and climate affairs among all segments of the community, as well as to consolidate the principles of preservation of the environment and its natural resources and contribute in the support of the exerted efforts in accordance with the objectives of sustainable development.
The Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs undertakes the task of issuing environmental laws represented by His Excellency the Minister as required by the environmental exigency or upon issuance of Royal Decrees as required. There are several non-governmental efforts, which support the government's efforts in protection of the environment, including the establishment of civil societies such as: Environment Society of Oman and Oman green awards.